1 The term “hybrid warfare” has been in use since at least 2005 when it was used in reference to the strategy used by the Hezbollah in the 2006 Lebanon War. General George Casey, former Chief of Staff of the US Army, insisted that a key component of a hybrid threat is Key Characteristics of Russian Hybrid Warfare Russian hybrid warfare has at least three main characteristics. ‘Hybrid warfare’, sometimes known as ‘hybrid threats’, became a trendy buzzword in recent years, used to describe a panoply of seemingly different threats. According to Michael Aaronson, action. The term “hybrid war” (military institutions use the term “hybrid threat”) connotes the use of conventional military force supported by irregular and cyber warfare tactics. More recently, NATO adopted a Hybrid Warfare Strategy in December 2015 and the European Union adopted its Joint Framework for Addressing Hybrid Threats in April 2016. In practical application, the Russian concept of “nonlinear conflict” is an example of hybrid warfare strategy. Hybrid threats and warfare today and tomorrow: bringing the army (back) in Mikael Weissmann, SEDU • Hybrid Warfare blurs the distinction between civilian and combatant and both demands and permits all activities deemed necessary to achieve success. It economizes the use of force.

intelligence as a catalyst and key enabler of hybrid warfare. DRAFT GENERAL REPORT* Julio MIRANDA CALHA (Portugal) General Rapporteur www.nato-pa.int 7 April 2015 * Until this document has been approved by the Defence and Security Committee, it only represents the views of the General Rapporteur. Russian hybrid warfare and outlines basic elements for a strategy to counter it. While neither the European Union (EU) nor the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation ( NATO) appear to have a clear definition of this term, both organisations are taking steps to ‘counter Recognizing Russia would stand little chance of winning a NATO's strategic partnership with the EU is vital for NATO … Johann Schmid . The concept of “hybrid warfare” found additional traction in the early 21st Century when the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) picked it up. FUTEC Hybrid Warfare: Future & Technologies. 1 Schmid, J. and Thiele, R.: Hybrid Warfare – Orchestrating the Technology Revolution. NATO Parliamentary Assembly DEFENCE AND SECURITY COMMITTEE HYBRID WARFARE: NATO’S NEW STRATEGIC CHALLENGE? This paper will study Russian hybrid warfare activities and the prepared-ness of an Alliance shaped by the RAP and the New Strategy on Hybrid Warfare. Conceptualizing hybrid warfare Defining hybrid warfare … As the Alliance confronts regional hybrid security challenges along Europe's southern and eastern peripheries, partners are an important part of NATO's strategy in regards to hybrid warfare and regional engagement. In 2011 the NATO multinational exercise called “Countering Hybrid Threats” was used to test concepts in NATO’s new 2010 Strategic Concept. current model of Hybrid Warfare was correct. 2 James Sherr, for example, writes that hybrid warfare is “designed to slip under NATO’s threshold of perception and reaction.” Quoted in Mike Collier with Mary Sibierski, “NATO Allies Come to Grips with Russia’s ‘Hybrid Warfare’” AFP, March 18, 2015. 2 As defined in the 2015 NATO PA Defence and Security Committee General Report Hybrid Warfare:

It argues that the concept of hybrid warfare has the potential to help NATO’s strategic planners and decision-makers to draft a strategy against hybrid threats, enabling NATO to deal comprehensively with such challenges.