The Pioneer programs were two series of United States uncrewed space missions for lunar and planetary exploration. Pioneer 4 made it to within 60,000 km of the Moon in 1959 but had been upstaged by the Soviet Luna I which had passed within 7,500 km two months earlier. After 82 hours of transmissions from Pioneer 4's tiny radio and and 655,000 miles of travel -- the farthest tracking distance for a human-made object at the time -- contact was lost on March 6, 1959. Sakigake data between October 94 (third maneuver) and October 95 (fourth maneuver) may not be very accurate. Solar System Formation Find out how a fuzzy cloud of molecular gas formed the planetary system we call home. Pioneer 4 did provide extensive and valuable data on radiation and the tracking of space objects. Pioneer The Pioneer series is a long running series of space probes which started with Pioneers 1-3 in 1958 which never got far from the Earth but provided new data about the Earth, the Van Allen Belts, magnetic fields, etc. Giant Planets The gas giant planets are so different from the Earth. The first program, which ran from 1958 to 1960, unsuccessfully attempted to send spacecraft to orbit the Moon, successfully sent one spacecraft to fly by the Moon, and successfully sent one spacecraft to investigate interplanetary space between the orbits of Earth and Venus. Radial Distances of Pioneer 10, Pioneer 11, Voyager 1, and Voyager 2 11 Time coverage is launch through 1999. The data points are on the first day of each year. Find out the basics of their atmospheres and interiors. If readers know of additional information or images, please contact the authors using the e-mail addresses at the bottom of this page. A Likely Coronavirus Victim: Virgin Galactic’s Planned 2020 Commercial Launch The COVID-19 pandemic means the space tourism pioneer's financial projections timeline will also be pushed back. List of Figures Figure 1.
Pioneer-13 This page contains reference images for (Later) Pioneer-series (planetary) satellites. As part of the launch, Debrief is now the first decentralized application built to offer data storage, video conferencing, messaging, and P2P audio capabilities in one centralized location.
Figure 2.